Game Rules

The Home Team starts the game in defence and the Visiting Team starts in offence.

The goal of the defensive team is to eliminate (get out) three players of the offensive team in order to switch sides. When the teams switch sides, the defensive team will play offence and vice-versa.

The goal of the offensive team is to score runs (points). A run is scored when an offensive player is able to complete a full run by touching all bases and safely returning home without being eliminated by the defence.

Defence / defensive team

The five players of the defensive team shall all be in fair territory when the batter hits the ball.


  • 1st Base
  • 2nd Base
  • 3rd Base
  • Shortstop
  • Midfielder

Offence / offensive team

In the lineup card the teams must list the five active players hitting from one to five. The batting order shall be followed throughout the game unless a player is substituted for another. In which case, the substitute shall replace the player in the batting order.

Hitting / batting

The act of hitting/batting must take place while the batter is completely within the batter’s box. The batter shall remain within these lines until the ball is hit away from the batter’s hand.

The offensive player shall enter the batter’s box and raise the hand they intend to use to hit the ball. The ball must be hit/slapped either with a palm or a fist.

The hit/slapped ball shall have enough momentum to reach the outfield fence.

Should a defender touch a legally hit ball before it reaches the outfield fence, the ball is automatically considered valid.

Illegal hitting

The first bounce must to be after the no-hit zone line marked diagonally at 4.5 m from home plate. For the U-15 category the no-hit zone is marked at 3 m.

In the U-15 category and other age-group categories below, players will have a second chance in the case of an illegal hit or foul-ball.

Points / runs

A point (run) is scored when a player reaches home plate, having passed all the bases in turn, during an offensive session of their team. The bases must be touched in the follow order: 1st base, 2nd base, 3rd base and home plate.


The defensive team needs to eliminate three opponents in an inning in order to switch sides and become the offensive team.

How the defence makes “outs”:

  • By touching the base (while in possession of the ball) in which a runner is “forced” to run to;
  • By catching a hit ball before it touches the ground;
  • By tagging a runner when he/she is not on a base - Tagging = touching the runner with the ball in hand;
  • If a batter reaches 1st base safely but fails to remain in the safe area and is tagged by a defender while outside the safe area.

How the offensive players eliminate themselves due to an illegal behaviour/action:

  • By touching (stepping) on one of the batter’s box lines while hitting the ball;
  • By hitting the ball in foul territory*;
  • By being hit by a legally hit ball;
  • By completely missing the ball in the attempt of hitting;
  • By intentionally faking to hit the ball;
  • By not making a hit ball touch the fairground at least once before touching the fences or going above the fences;
  • By not making the hit ball reach the outfield fence (in case of no touch by any defensive player);
  • By not respecting the batting order and hitting in place of a teammate**;
  • By a runner leaving the base before the batter hits the ball;
  • By passing a teammate while in the action of running the bases;
  • By being tagged while two or more runners are on the same base by (the player listed later in the batting order shall be called “out”);
  • The one behind in the batting order shall be called “out”;
  • By sliding in the attempt to safely reach a base or in the attempt to avoid a tag***.

Dead ball

If, after a valid hit, the ball leaves the field of play and is no longer playable by the defence, the game stops. In such cases, one of the following will be applied:

  • If no defender touches the ball, each runner advances to the next base (no extra base is awarded);
  • If the hit ball touches a defender (no error) and leaves the field of play, each runner advances to the next base (no extra base is awarded);
  • If the ball leaves the court due to a defensive error (missed throw or missed catch), each runner is awarded an extra base (batter goes to 2nd base, runner on 1st base goes to 3rd base and so on...). It is at the discretion of the Game Official as to whether to call the error and award the extra base to the offence.
  • The ball is also dead if the Game Official calls an obstruction (each runner advances one base).

Bases loaded, two outs - Special case

In a situation with bases loaded and two outs where the runner at 3rd base is up (according to the batting order) each runner advances one base with the runner on 3rd base going to hit and a pinch runner placed on 1st base. In teams with only five players, the first player called out in that inning becomes a pinch runner on 1st base. The batting order shall always be respected. 

1st inning: 

  • Paul, base hit. Paul is on 1st base, no outs, Jane goes into the batter’s box.
  • Jane, base hit. Paul is on 2nd base, Jane is on 1st base, no outs, Mike goes into the batter’s box.
  • Mike, base hit. Paul is on 3rd base, Jane is on 2nd base, Mike is on 1st base, no outs, Steve goes into the batter’s box.
  • Steve, fly out. Paul is on 3rd base, Jane is on 2nd base, Mike is on 1st base, one out, Kim goes in the batter’s box.
  • Kim, fly out. Paul is on 3rd base, Jane is on 2nd base, Mike is on 1st base, two outs, Paul should be the next batter, but he is on 3rd base. 

Therefore: Paul goes into the batter’s box, Jane advances to 3rd base, Mike to 2nd base and Steve (first out of the inning) goes to 1st base as a pinch runner. 


Should a Game Official deem that a runner has interfered with the defensive play, the runner shall be ruled out.


Should a Game Official deem that the batter-runner is obstructed while running to the next base, the ball becomes dead, and all runners advance to the bases they would have reached had there been no obstruction.


A player can request time when a play is over. The ball is alive until the Game Official grants the request.

Unsportsmanlike behaviour

Should a Game Official detect any unsportsmanlike behaviour from any delegation member - players on and off the field, coach and team manager - the responsible person may be ejected from the game.

During tournaments, any ejection will result in a minimum suspension of one match.


Tactical substitutions can take place every time a team changes between offence and defence.

Reserve players can only enter the game once. Therefore, they cannot re-enter the game once they are substituted out of the game. A starting player can only re-enter the game to regain their original spot in the batting order.

Should a player suffer an injury, they can be substituted at any time. The injured player cannot re-enter the game. Should the match be played over a series of three games, the injured player is out for the whole series.